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Diabetes in children

Diabetes in children

Diabetes is a disease that threatens everyone, young and old. Dr. Neslihan Güngör, Pediatric Endocrinology Specialist from Anadolu Medical Center November 14, World Diabetes Day in childhood due to the curious questions about diabetes answers.

: What is the definition of diabetes or diabetes?
Dr Neslihan Gungor:
Diabetes, popularly known as diabetes, is in the medical language.
It is called m diabetes mellitus.. In Latin, “diabetes” means increased urine extraction, and “melitis or melitus şeker means sugar, honey. In other words, m diabetes mellitus ”means abundant sugar urine extraction. As long as blood sugar is within normal limits, intact kidneys do not excrete sugar in urine. However, when blood sugar exceeds the limit of 180 mg / dl, excretion of sugar in urine begins. By diabetes mellitus is meant a disease in which blood sugar is elevated and excessive amounts of sugar are removed.

: What is the mechanism of diabetes in the body (pathogenesis, pathogenesis)?
Dr Neslihan Gungor:
Normally, the nutrients we consume are converted to sugar (glucose), which is our main energy source. Blood sugars should be kept within a certain range for the normal functioning of the human body. Blood sugar rises after feeding. The hormone called “insulin dan is secreted from our pancreas organ and the glucose is taken up by the tissues in need and the excess is stored as glycogen which is the complex glucose store or converted to fat which we call lipid.
Diabetes occurs when there is an absolute or relative insufficiency in insulin production. Absolute insufficiency or absence of insulin is caused by damage or death of cells responsible for insulin production (beta cells in the islets of Langerhans) in the pancreas. When we say the relative deficiency of insulin, we mean situations in which insulin cannot perform its normal duties due to insulin resistance in the body, despite the fact that insulin is made in the body. One of the most important causes of insulin resistance is overweight or obese.

: How is diabetes classified? What do the terms insulin-dependent diabetes or orally treated medication mean?
Dr Neslihan Gungor:
When trying to understand the outline classification of diabetes, it will help to remember the mechanism of occurrence mentioned above. We call diabetes, which is seen when insulin is insufficient or cannot be done at all, is called bağımlı insulin dependent diabetes ile in its old definition and “Type 1 diabetes yeni in its new definition. Insulin is essential and essential for the treatment of these patients.
We refer to relative insulin deficiency due to insulin resistance and diabetes as a result of the old definition of olmayan non-insulin dependent diabetes ”, and yeni Type 2 diabetes yeni with the new identification system. The first goal in the treatment of these patients is to reduce insulin resistance. To ensure this, a proper diet (nutrition program) and physical activity are very important, and some patients also take oral medications.

: At what age does diabetes occur?
Dr Neslihan Gungor:
Diabetes is generally seen at any age.
Type 1, that is, insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common type of diabetes in childhood. The most common age in childhood is between 5-7 years and adolescence. However, it can also be seen in adults.
Type 2 diabetes was known to be a disease only in adults until the early 1980s. However, since the 1980s, especially in developed countries such as the United States and Japan, the problem of childhood obesity has increased and has been increasing due to avalanche. Nowadays, scientific articles about the increase in childhood Type 2 diabetes from many countries of the world have been published and continue to be published. It is most commonly seen in adolescents, especially in the 13-15 age group. Additional risk factors include obesity, family history of type 2 diabetes, or maternal diabetes during pregnancy, a sedentary lifestyle with little or no exercise, certain ethnic groups, and polycystic ovary syndrome.

: What symptoms / symptoms can a child with diabetes have?
Dr Neslihan Gungor:
Diabetes can present a wide variety of symptoms in a child. In general terms, the sooner the condition is recognized and the sooner the child is taken to the doctor, the more severe the symptoms are, the sooner the condition is noticed or neglected. Major symptoms include: fatigue, thirst, too much urination, night urination, and especially when a child with toilet training begins to soak in the night again, weight loss, sometimes growth retardation in general, skin infections and genitalia in girls. Fungal infections. In advanced cases dehydration, ie loss of water from the body, deterioration in the general situation, drowsiness and even blurred consciousness, frequent breathing, abdominal pain, vomiting may be symptoms such as "sugar coma" called "diabetic ketoacidosis" may be a sign of going to this In addition to the above symptoms, it may be seen that children with Type 2 diabetes have excessive weight or obesity, and skin velvety areas (such as neck, armpits) are thickened and thickened like velvet.

: Why is early diagnosis of diabetes in children important?
Dr Neslihan Gungor:
As we have explained above, the signs and symptoms become more serious and life-threatening. In addition, if the appropriate treatment is started as soon as possible, the possibility of other health risks (complications) due to diabetes can be reduced in the short term and in the long term.

: What are the goals in the treatment of childhood diabetes?
Dr Neslihan Gungor:
We can list them as follows:

Short-term goals:

1- Elimination of the health hazards of the child by admission to the hospital: Appropriate treatment should be given if he came in the picture of diabetic ketoacidosis, treatment if there is an infection, and blood sugar should be checked with the started treatment.

2- The family and the child should be given i diabetes education getir and be discharged to a level that will continue the treatment of the child within the scope of their daily lives outside the hospital. Information about the intake of insulin or oral medication within the context of diabetes education, learning of the blood and blood glucose meter with the device called glucometer from the finger and the child, the determination of targeted intervals in blood sugars, teaching the signs and treatment of low blood sugar, training on nutrition and physical activity, information and follow-up plan for additional problems and solutions related to diabetes that may occur during infections.

Long-term goals:

1- Keep blood sugars as close to normal as possible, but take precautions against unwanted conditions such as low blood sugar and excessive weight gain. Reduce the likelihood of future diabetes complications with intensive treatment.

2- Organizing and providing support to allow the child and the family to maintain a good quality of life.

3- Follow-up and screening tests for diabetes complications. For example, blood pressure monitoring, fasting blood lipid (lipid) monitoring, screening for thyroid problems, et al.