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According to research, 1 to 3 out of every 1000 babies are born with various degrees of hearing loss. In the literature, the prevalence of severe to very severe sensorineural hearing loss in both ears in the birth is given as 1-2 per 1000. This rate ranges from 2.5% to 10% for babies at risk for hearing loss. Family history of hearing loss is one of the most important conditions in terms of hearing loss. Some of the maternal illnesses during pregnancy, having a baby in the newborn intensive care unit, low birth weight, ear deformity and hyperbilirubinemia (high jaundice) are other important risk factors.
The most important point about hearing loss is early and accurate diagnosis. Even very mild hearing loss causes communication and expression impairment in communication, creating a major problem in the child's learning to speak. In addition, cognitive, social, emotional development and future school performance negatively affect. With a hearing scan that takes 2-3 minutes and is performed in the baby's natural sleep, it is possible to determine whether he has any hearing problems. Moreover, this test can be done to any baby after 24 hours and in no way hurts. The incidence of hearing loss in Turkey, as mandatory testing of all newborns made phenylketonuria disease is much greater than the incidence. While compulsory hearing screening is performed for every newborn in the United States, unfortunately this test has not yet been made compulsory in our country. Therefore, it is up to their parents, who have spent the most time with them, to find out if there is a problem with the baby's hearing.
If parents know what age baby should behave in terms of hearing and speech development, it will be much easier and quicker to realize that there is a problem.
• Newborn babies; they only cry, they react to very loud and sudden sounds.
• Babies of 2-3 months; they laugh, they make some very simple sounds. (For example, “gooo”). They recognize the voices of people they know and begin to perceive the differences in intonation in the sound.
• Infants from 4 months to 6 months; they cry when you speak, hear noise, or hear music, or stop if you are on the move. When they hear a sudden loud sound, they bounce and head towards the sound source.
• Infants between 6 months and 12 months; footsteps, phone rings, forks and knives. They slowly start to sound like “ma-ma-ma, ba-ba-ba”. They start to make some gestures and gestures to communicate.
• Babies from 12 months of age; recognize their name. When you say “no anlar, he understands and fulfills your simple verbal orders. (For example, göster Show your nose. ”, Nerede Where is the mother?”, Ver Give your toy.))
• Babies between 12 months and 18 months; they mimic the sounds you make correctly and even say their first meaningful words.
• For up to 24 months, the child must correctly recognize the names of the five objects you have shown the picture to. He uses at least 20 words and starts to form short sentences by combining the words. (For example, “Dad is gone.”, Su Water for me. ”,“ More juice. ”)
• The 3-year-old child repeats some parts of simple rhythm and songs, knows and uses the meaning of words such as “me-yours”, “inside-out”, “big-small ve. Can answer some simple questions. (For example, ne What's your name? ”,“ What flies?))
• The 4-year-old uses sentences of 3-5 words. He asks too many questions. He speaks fluently without stuttering.
• A 5-year-old can continue to talk to you about an event. The tone should be normal and others should be able to understand almost everything your child is saying.
• It is noteworthy that children between 3-5 years of age have difficulty in following what their parents say and want it to be repeated all the time, that they are distracted very quickly, that they want to turn up the volume of television or radio too much or watch it closely. Children of this age group are those who have reached kindergarten age. Therefore, the kindergarten teacher's observations about the child will also play an important role in diagnosing any problems.
If the baby is not screened at birth, parents should closely follow their hearing and speech development and consult an audiologist as soon as they feel there is a problem. Ear and nose throat and pediatrics physicians have an important role in early diagnosis. Ideally, all newborns should undergo hearing screening within the first three months, further audiologic examination will be performed for those who cannot pass the screening test, and the use of hearing aids before the age of 6 months in babies diagnosed with hearing loss.
If the hearing loss is diagnosed in a timely and correct manner and immediately switched to the appropriate hearing instrument, it is possible that the hearing-impaired child will be able to catch up with his or her normal peers in the development of speech by giving intensive auditory-verbal training. Hearing-impaired children need one-to-one parent training to ensure concept development, require plenty of conversation with the child, and be given almost every minute the child is awake. There should be no auditory stimuli (such as radio, TV) in the room where the child is being educated. It is known that exposure to excessive auditory and visual stimuli adversely affects speech development in all children between the ages of 2 and 4 who are considered critical age in learning to speak. Leaving the radio or TV turned on all day in the child's room may damage development.
Parents who have been diagnosed with hearing loss in their infants play games aimed at the development of one-to-one concepts with the baby. Other points to consider; to accept the problem, to be determined to use the hearing aid, and to agree on the educational issues of the parents. The biggest problem encountered at this point; especially by the elders living in the same household, the child is evaluated as a disabled individual and every request is fulfilled. This behavior causes disciplinary problems in children and makes it difficult to provide education.
The main aim of parents' awareness is to provide speech development and social inclusion of hearing impaired children through early diagnosis, appropriate hearing aid and proper education.
Zeynep Gence, M.Sc.