Health

Premature and Low Birth Weight Babies

Premature and Low Birth Weight Babies

Most parents expect their babies to be reunited late or early at most on the specified date. And indeed, many babies are born at the most appropriate time, the expected date, by completing the necessary preparations for life outside the womb for themselves. However, things don't always work out well, and some pregnancies are unexpectedly and sometimes dangerously cut short, resulting in premature or very small births. Some of these babies are born just a few grams lighter than the low birth weight limit of 2500 grams and as a result of rapid development, they catch their normal birth weight peers. However, others who are deprived of many weeks of intrauterine development are sometimes born small enough to fit into the palm and need months of intensive medical treatment and care to catch up with the growth and development they need to show in the uterus. Although they constitute a risky group, rapid advances in medical practices for infants have allowed the vast majority to grow as normal, healthy children. However, until the day they are discharged from the hospital and taken to their homes, parents often spend troubled days and sleepless nights.

Newborn Care Unit


The first encounter with these units may seem daunting. Still, knowing what you're looking at will comfort you. Here is a typical newborn in the intensive care unit you can see:
• A lot of naked little babies with only diapers on them
• Heated beds are in the form of adjustable mattresses placed under heat-emitting lamps.
• Incubator. The enclosed guards outside the four inlet and outlet holes around it.
• Tubes, wires, tiny plastic pipes; these instruments in infants extend to monitors, intravenous fluids, and instruments for assessing and regulating respiration, heart rate, oxygen consumption.
• Monitors that record vital signs and alert any changes.
• Plastic caps or ventilators for oxygen supply and respiratory support.
• Absorbent systems at the beginning of each baby's bed that remove excess respiratory secretions at regular intervals.
• Lamps for phototherapy (light therapy) in jaundiced infants.

Portrait of a Premature

It is natural for parents of babies born just in time to experience a period of confusion when they first see their babies.. Premature babies their parents, however, literally experience a shock. A typical premature is about 1600-1900 grams, some of which are born at a lower weight. The youngest is large enough to fit in the palm of an adult. The skin of the premature is transparent and the arteries and veins can be seen through the skin. Since adipose tissue does not develop under the skin, the skin gives a loose impression and is often covered with soft hairs called lanugo (these hairs did not have the opportunity to shed). Since the baby's brown fat tissue does not develop, it does not have the ability to maintain its heat. Premature ears; Since the cartilage tissue for shaping has not yet developed, it may be straight, curled or wavy. Gender characteristics are often poorly developed, and testes in men may not have descended. As neither muscle nor nerve development is complete, there may not be many reflexes that should be present in the newborn. And, since there is no breathing force, the baby may be crying little or no crying, which may be called ”premature apnea,, when breathing stops. However, prematureness is a temporary condition. Premature babiesis quite similar in size and development to typical newborns when they reach the 40th week they should actually be born.

Premature Baby Nutrition

The target for feeding a premature baby is 90-120 g per week. weighing. But regardless of the targeted weighing intake, it is not possible to initiate this intake without stabilizing the premature baby's condition. Just like in fully developed infants, it is expected that the premature baby will lose some amount before starting to gain weight. The nutritional needs of a premature baby vary considerably from a timely baby. Breast milk and formula, which are two main nutrients of babies born in time, are not sufficient for premature babies. These little babies need a diet similar to what they would have taken in the womb. This should include more protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, sodium and other possible nutrients. And they have to take all these nutrients as concentrated as possible. Because the amount of food they can take at a time is very small. Most premature, when brought to the neonatal ward, to prevent dehydration (loss of fluid) and electrolyte loss; water, sugar, and certain electrolytes. Following such an initial feeding, very premature infants (those born before 30-33 weeks) have not yet developed a suction reflex, so they are fed with a nasogastric probe inserted through the nose and reaching the stomach.33. Premature babies born 13 weeks of age and over (1300 gr. or more) can be given directly to the breastmother but need to wait longer if they need to be bottle-fed. Many experts prefer breastmilk to formula for feeding premature infants. One reason for this is the absence of substances such as antibodies, hormones, and many enzymes, especially lipase, which increase the absorption of the fat needed by the mother, in cow's milk and formula. a baby is much richer and more suitable for premature than his mother. High-concentration formulas (but not formula) are good alternatives to breastmilk, especially designed for premature infants where breastfeeding is not possible.

Although your baby is not yet ready to suck, you should start producing milk as soon as you give birth, as it will be needed later. You can store your milk in the freezer every 4 hours. While providing your milk, especially in order to remove the last part of the fat-rich milk with higher nutritional properties, do not forget to empty your breasts completely. Regularly expressing your milk with the pump will prevent your milk from interrupting, and will be ready when your baby sucking.

Special Care Advice for Premature Babies

Keep your home warmer than usual, at approximately 22.5 degrees, especially during the first weeks your baby comes home. Usually, the temperature adjustment mechanisms of premature babies start to work until they come home; but they cannot be very comfortable without help because of the small size of their bodies and their skin size. Premature infants 2-2,5 kg. or they are not allowed to return home until they reach 37-40 gestational age. After returning home, you need to pay attention to some details.

• If necessary, remove diapers made for premature babies. It won't be too big for him and it'il make him more comfortable.
• If using a bottle, take care of sterilization.
• Take time to breastfeed your baby more often. Premature infants have very small stomachs and need to be fed every two to three hours. In addition, babies born in time can not suck as strong and need to suck longer to get enough.
• If your baby does not receive a formula that contains all the necessary nutrients, give him a multivitamin supplement recommended by his doctor.
• Treat your baby as if it were a newborn. Don't be overly cautious, overly tolerant and dependent. It is true that your baby needs to be taken care of a little better, but it is not as fragile as you think. A very child-centered environment may adversely affect development in the future and result in a spoiled, engaging and unhappy child.

N What to expect in the first year of your baby ” from the book.