Health

Influenza and Colds in Pregnancy

Influenza and Colds in Pregnancy

Along with autumn variable weather temperatures are also winter diseases flu and colds heralded the season.Gynecology and Obstetrics Specialist Op. Dr. Contact Alper directly Olan This situation, which is very uncomfortable even in normal times, creates more problems during pregnancy and causes the expectant mothers to worry about their babies, uyarı he warns.

What is the difference between flu and colds?

Flu (scientific term influenza) and colds are two terms that are often confused with each other and are even used interchangeably. Both symptoms have similar symptoms, but both cause and outcome are very different. Both diseases are caused by viruses and involve the upper respiratory tract. Influenza Influenza A, B, and C are three types of virus-related disease, while 200 different types of viruses can cause colds.

Could you tell us about the common cold?

Cold It is usually a nose-catching disease and a significant portion of the microbes that cause this disease are included in the group called rhinovirus. Rhino in Greek means nose. Symptoms usually occur 2 days after encountering the virus. The most common complaints are catarrh, nasal congestion and sneezing. While fever is not usually seen, sore throat or sensitivity may occur, but redness of the throat is rarely seen on examination. Pain in the sinuses and ear pain are common. Depending on the type of virus, symptoms such as watery eyes, cough, nasal discharge, loss of appetite, weakness may also accompany the event, but the center of the problem is the nose. Initially more fluid nasal discharge can darken in a few days and change its consistency and turn yellow-green. Symptoms disappear spontaneously within 7-10 days. A cold usually affects the nose, while the flu affects the entire body.

Influenza caused by influenza viruses is a serious disease that can cause widespread outbreaks every year. At the beginning of the last century, the influenza epidemic that has affected the whole world has killed more than 20 million people. According to the American Center for Disease Control, 10-20% of the population catches flu every year, and an average of 114,000 people have to be treated in the hospital because of influenza and more than 20,000 die. A significant proportion of patients who die are either chronic patients with serious health problems or frail elderly. Therefore, flu is a very serious disease. Because the virus that causes the disease changes form at very frequent intervals, it causes widespread outbreaks. At less frequent intervals, large changes in the structure of the virus occur and outbreaks affecting the entire world are observed.

The disease usually starts with an increase in body temperature, ie fever. Redness and weakness on the face accompany the table. Some people may experience dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Fever usually lasts for 2-3 days, but rarely can last up to 5 days. After the fever general body symptoms appear and respiratory system complaints increase. One of the most important findings is dry cough. However, sore throat, sore throat, cold symptoms, common muscle and joint pain are common. Flu virus can settle in the respiratory system, nose, throat, trachea and even lungs and cause zaaturre. Unlike viruses that cause colds, it can damage the epithelial lining the respiratory system and cause bacteria to interfere. Symptoms other than cough usually disappear within 1 week, while cough may persist for several weeks.

Both diseases are transmitted from the air in the form of droplet infection. When the person carrying the virus sneezes, millions of viruses enter the air and enter the person's eyes, nose and mouth, causing infection. The person receiving the virus has the most infectiousness during the first 2 days thereafter. In other words, the first period of symptoms is the period of the most contagious. On the other hand, hands can also play a role in the infection. A sick person can take the disease after wiping his nose with his hand, for example when he shakes hands with someone else and the person who shakes his hand then scratches his eye. While both diseases can cause complications, serious conditions such as zaaturre are not seen in the common cold. One of the main differences between the flu and colds is that the flu is a vaccine-preventable disease.

Pregnancy alone does not pose a risk for influenza. However, when a pregnant woman catches the flu, the chance of complications increases. When the women of the same age group are compared, it is seen that the rate of hospitalization for flu because of the flu is higher than the ones who are not pregnant. Pregnancy causes changes in the person's immune system as well as circulatory and respiratory systems, leading to higher risk of complications. On the other hand, a mother who has been infected with the flu in the late stages of pregnancy has a greater chance of passing on her postnatal disease to her baby.

The flu vaccine is a safe vaccine that does not contain live viruses and can be used during pregnancy. The American Association of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (ACOG), published in December 2000, recommends that women who are in the second or third trimester of their pregnancy during the outbreak season receive influenza vaccines. In the same report, it is recommended to take the flu vaccine regardless of gestational age in the presence of high risk conditions such as diabetes, asthma and hypertension. In women without such high risk factors, the vaccine should be administered at the end of the first trimester. However, antibodies developed in the mother after vaccination will pass on to some babies and protect them against the flu in the first months of life. Flu vaccine is considered safe during pregnancy and lactation.

The flu season usually covers the months of November to April. The disease occurs most frequently from December to early March. When the outbreak begins, the first 3 weeks are usually the most effective. The ideal period for vaccination is from October to mid-November. It takes 1-2 weeks for the production of antibodies after vaccination and initiation of protection. The protection of influenza vaccine varies between 70-90%. The flu vaccine does not cause flu. Upper respiratory tract infections seen in the first 2 weeks after vaccination are completely coincidental and have nothing to do with the vaccine. On the other hand, influenza vaccine is contraindicated and should not be done in those who are allergic to eggs because eggs are used when preparing the vaccine.

Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment for both diseases. No medication or administration shortens the duration of the disease. The ancients say that the common cold passes with medication in 7 days and without medication in 1 week. However, supportive therapies should be applied which may help to overcome the complaints in a mild and less discomforting manner. There are drugs against the influenza virus in the United States. However, in order for these drugs to be effective, they should be taken within the first 48 hours after the onset of symptoms. These drugs, which fall in category C during pregnancy, should only be used if the mother is at serious risk. Supportive treatment during flu or cold and what to do are:

• Both diseases are caused by viruses. Antibiotics are not effective on viruses so unless there is a secondary bacterial infectionantibiotics should not be used.
 • It is more important not to get infected than treatment. Therefore, during epidemic periods, it may be protective not to stay too long in closed places and to wash hands frequently.
 • The best and most effective supportive treatment is rest. Bed rest should be done if possible.
 • Keeping your head up while lying (sleeping with 2 or more pillows) will reduce the discomfort of nasal discharge.
 • Care must be taken that the environment is sufficiently hot and well ventilated.
 • The air should be prevented from drying out and should be provided to be moist.
 • Adequate fluid intake is extremely important.
 • During periods of disease should pay attention to nutrition, carbohydrate-rich diet should be applied to meet the energy need if there is an appetite.
 • Lozenges can be used to relieve sore throat.
 • For nasal congestion salt water or ocean water and so on. available.
 • Paracetamol can be taken to relieve pain and fever.
 • When symptoms disappear, normal activity should not be resumed immediately and resting should be continued for a full recovery.

In what situations should you call the doctor?

 • If you are in a high risk group
 • If your temperature rises above 38.5 degrees and does not fall within a few days
 • If breathing is difficult
 • If chest pain occurs
 • Severe ear pain, discharge and bleeding from the ear
 • If rash and redness occur
 • If neck stiffness occurs
 • You should call if you feel that you have not recovered within a few days and that you are seriously ill.