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Pregnancy is a special period in which the feeding habits should be reevaluated for the mother and the baby. Dogan Hospital Dietitian Emine Sezen Esas What is essential in this period is not to change the taste of the palate, but to make the nutritional habits adequate and balanced. It is normal for the expectant mother to gain weight between 9-13.5 kg during pregnancy. ”
Pregnancy is a special period in which the feeding habits should be reevaluated for the mother and the baby. What is essential in this period is not to change the taste of the palate, but to make the nutritional habits adequate and balanced. It is normal for the expectant mother to gain weight between 9-13.5 kg during pregnancy. Because of changing needs during the changing weeks of pregnancy, weight gain should be planned to be 1 kg per month in the first three months and 1-1.5 kg per month in the second and third months. Excessive weight gain in the mother may have consequences that threaten the health of the mother and the baby.
Most Useful Foods in Pregnancy;
• Milk, yogurt and cheese (contains calcium and protein)
• Green leafy vegetables (contains vitamin C, folic acid and fiber)
• Lean red meat (contains protein and iron)
• Chicken meat (contains protein and iron)
• Fish meat (contains calcium, iron, protein)
• Orange (contains Cvitamin, fiber)
• Whole wheat bread (contains protein, fiber, folic acid)
Most Harmful Foods in Pregnancy;
• Generally sweet and confectionery
• Jams and candy marmalades
• Carbonated and sugary drinks (cola, soda etc.)
• Excess coffee and tea
• Dinner for two
Vitamins and Minerals Useful in Pregnancy
Calcium: Your baby's bone and tooth development starts in the 8th week of your pregnancy. Pregnancy requires twice as much calcium as you normally need. Green leafy vegetables, cheese, milk and yogurt are very rich in calcium. Three slices of white bread, 100 gr. skim cheese, 2 glasses of milk and 150 gr. sardines will satisfy your daily calcium requirement. It should be remembered that dairy products are also rich in fat, and skimmed milk or yoghurt should be preferred. You do not need to take calcium tablets other than your multivitamin and natural diet unless your doctor recommends it.
Protein: Fish, meat, legumes and milk are protein rich foods and should meet the need for increased protein during pregnancy. Lean red meat, lentils, eggs, cheddar cheese, chicken, fish yogurt, peanuts and a small amount of peanut butter may be preferred. In the intake of animal protein, care should be taken to eat the lean portion of the meat.
C vitamin: Vitamin C in fresh vegetables and fruits increases the body's resistance to diseases, is important for the structure of the placenta and facilitates the absorption of iron in the intestines. Most of the vitamin C is lost in foods stored and cooked for a long time. Therefore, foods should be consumed fresh and vegetables should be eaten raw or boiled. Since vitamin C is not stored in the body, a certain amount should be taken every day. Orange, grapefruit, cabbage, brussels sprouts, potatoes, strawberries, red and green peppers, tomatoes and cauliflower contain plenty of vitamin C.
Fiber Foods: Constipation is frequently seen due to decreased bowel movements during pregnancy and if it is not paid attention, it can cause a lot of comfort by causing hemorrhoids and fissures. Fiber foods should form an important part of the daily diet. It is rich in vegetables and fruits and can be eaten abundantly every day. Whole wheat bread, leek, peas, dried apricots, raisins, dried fruits, brown rice and whole wheat pasta can be eaten. However, since whole foods impair the absorption of some foods, they should not be consumed in spite of high fiber content.
Iron: Iron, which is one of the basic necessities for baby and mother, is the only mineral that must be taken from outside during pregnancy. As a result of iron deficiency, maternal fatigue, weakness and loss of concentration, as well as hair loss, skin and mucosal disorders may occur. There is a need for more iron both in order to carry enough oxygen to the mother's blood which is increased due to pregnancy and to store the iron that the baby will use after birth. Lean red meat, tuna and liver contain plenty of iron, but d, yet iron alone can never be enough and must be supplemented with iron drugs. The importance of vitamin C for iron absorption should not be forgotten.
Folic acid: Although it is ideal to take before pregnancy, folic acid is necessary in the first few weeks of pregnancy to prevent the development of the baby's central nervous system and birth defects. It should be taken daily because it cannot be stored in the body and more than normal is needed during pregnancy. Fresh green vegetables are rich in folic acid. It should be eaten raw or scalded in order not to decrease the values with cooking.
Common Complaints in Pregnancy
Nausea: Nausea occurs frequently in the first months of pregnancy with hormonal changes affecting stomach activity. In case of disgust and vomiting against any food, intake of these foods should not be forced, but should be switched to another food. In this case the best solution; frequent and low nutrition. 5-6 small meals facilitate digestion by reducing stomach activity. Only in special cases recommended by the doctor should be used.
Heartburn: Due to the delayed gastric emptying, gastric compression due to increased gastric acid and growing uterus, and acidic content that seeps from the stomach into the esophagus causes stomach and chest burns. Nutrition in small and frequent meals is the most important principle. In addition, anti-acidic medications prescribed by the doctor may be used.
Constipation: Constipation due to decreased bowel movement deteriorates the comfort of pregnant woman to an increasing degree, especially if it is present before pregnancy. Foods rich in fiber should be consumed as well as plenty of water, and medications for constipation should be used without the advice of a physician.